Dr. Lind, a Scottish physician and naval officer, is generally recognized as having conducted the first clinical trial in 1747 while working in hygiene for the Royal Navy. Dr. Lind’s research was controlled; testing “like to like”, in this case acids to acids. Dr. Lind was aboard the HMS Salisbury and determined 12 sailors were suffering certain symptoms; those symptoms synonymous with scurvy. Dr. Lind was the first physician to document and establish a definite connection between diet and scurvy. Of course, today’s clinical trials are far more sophisticated and based on scientific principles, but clinical research plays an essential role in medical treatment in the 21st century.